The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus: a brain-stem output of the limbic system critical for the conditioned place preferences produced by morphine and amphetamine (Bechara 1989)
Tegmental pedunculopontine lesions in rats decrease saccharin’s rewarding effects but not its memory-improving effect (Stefurak 1994)
Saccharin’s Rewarding, Conditioned Reinforcing, and Memory-Improving Properties: Mediation by Isomorphic or Independent Processes? (Stefurak 1992)



  • Conditioning took place in one of two boxes.
  • One had black walls and a black Plexiglas floor.
  • The other box had white walls and a wood chip floor.

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