Neuroanatomical Sites Mediating the Motivational Effects of Opioids as Mapped by the Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm in Rats (BALS-KUBIK 1993)
Involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system in mediating the aversive effects of opioid antagonists in the rat (Shippenberg 1995)
Examination of the neurochemical substrates mediating the motivational effects of opioids: role of the mesolimbic dopamine system and D1 vs. D2 dopamine receptors (Shippenberg 1993)



  • The apparatus consisted of 30 X 60 x 30 cm acrylic shuttle boxes with a clear Plexiglas front.
  • One compartment was white with a textured floor
  • The other black with a smooth floor.
  • The central wall is provided by 5 x 2 cm “neutral” steel mesh platform.

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