The dopamine innervation of the visceral cortex mediates the aversive effects of opiates. (Zito 1988)
Drug Reinforcement Studied by the Use of Place Conditioning in Rat (Mucha 1982)
The parabrachial nucleus: a brain stem substrate critical for mediating the aversive motivational effects of morphine (Bechara 1993)
Lesions of the lateral parabrachial nucleus block the aversive motivational effects of both morphine and morphine withdrawal but spare morphine’s discriminative properties (Nadar 1996)



  • Rats were tested with a rectangular Acrylic box measuring 91 × 41 × 38 cm.
  • On either end of the test box was a white-walled area with a 41 × 41 cm chip floor.
  • A black-walled area with a 41 × 41 cm black Plexiglas floor.
  • The neutral area was 9 × 41 × 38 cm.
  • This neutral area had grey walls and a floor constructed of grey 1 cm wire grid.

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